|I You He/She/It We You They||worked a lot last night.|
The -ed ending has three pronunciations:
|after the sounds [t] and [d] attracted [ə'træktɪd] adopted [ə'dɒptɪd] added ['ædɪd] needed ['nɪ:dɪd]||after the unvoiced sounds (except [t]) looked [lʋkt] addressed [ə'drest] touched [tʌtʃt] washed [wɒʃt]||after voiced sounds (except [d]) played [pleɪd] opened ['əʋpənd] raised [reɪzd] lived [lɪvd] filled [fɪld] showed [ʃəʋd]|
Exercise 36. Put these words into three groups according to the pronunciation of the -ed endings.
|passed, washed, watched, decided, remembered, failed, stopped, studied, asked, loved, used, listened, wanted|
Exercise 37. Complete the sentences using the words in the list. Use the Simple Present or the Simple Past.
|invite, stay, like, want, watch, happen|
Example: Mike often asks questions. He asked a lot of questions in class yesterday.
Positive form — Irregular verbs
Irregular verbs are irregular in the Past Simple Tense in the positive only (not in the negative or question form).
|1.||I You He/She/It We You They||came||to the station in time.|
|2.||I You He/She/It We You They||had||a lecture yesterday.|
|3.||I||was||born in Moscow in 1989.|
|You||were||rather good at English.|
|He/She||was||in Paris some years ago.|
|It||was||most interesting event in my life.|
|We You They||were||at the opera yesterday.|
Find the word that doesn’t belong to each list. Give the Present Tense form of the verbs.
Exercise 39. Complete the sentences putting the verbs in the Past Simple Tense. Use each verb only once.
|sell, spend, buy, fly, drive, run, cost, drink, understand|
Example: Mr and Mrs Brown drove from London to Manchester last weekend.
|1.||I You He/She/It We You They||did not (didn’t) return/come home in time.|
|2.||I You He/She/It We You They||did not (didn’t)have a villa near the beach.|
|3.||I||was not (wasn’t)||in the office the day before yesterday.|
|You||were not (weren’t)|
|He/She/It||was not (wasn’t)|
|We You They||were not (weren’t)||at the seaside last summer.|
Exercise 40. Make the following sentences negative.
Example: She spoke to me at the party. — She didn’t speak to me at the party.
1. I bought some new clothes last week.
Exercise 41. Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative.
1. The hotel ___ very expensive. (not/be) It ___ very much. (not/cost)
|1.||Did||I you he/she/it we you they||go/return home after work?||Yes, No,||I you he/she/it we you they||did. didn’t.|
|2.||Was||I/he/she it||interested in Biology at school? difficult?||Yes, No,||I/he/she it||was. wasn’t.|
|Were||you||keen on computer games in your childhood?||Yes, No,||I||was. wasn’t.|
|Were||we you they||born in Moscow?||Yes, No,||we you they||were. weren’t.|
|3.||Did||I you he/she/it we you they||havemany friends at school?||Yes, No,||I you he/she/it we you they||did. didn’t.|
Exercise 42. Rewrite each sentence as positive, negative or a general question, according to the instructions.
Example: My dad didn’t work late yesterday. (positive) — My dad worked late yesterday.
Greg went to the theatre at the weekend. (question) — Did Greg go to the theatre at the weekend?
I visited my parents last week. (negative) — I didn’t visit my parents last week.
1. We began our new language course book in May. (negative)
2. Mike got some tickets for the World Cup. (question)
3. Our trip lasted a fortnight. (negative)
4. Tanya didn’t sleep well at all last night.(positive)
5. They worked overtime in their new job. (negative)
6. The alarm clock woke Helen from a deep sleep. (negative)
7. He arrived at the hotel at midnight. (question)
|When||were||you born?||— In 1987.|
|How||was||the weekend?||— Oh, it was great!|
|Which subject||was||your favourite one?||— Mathematics.|
|How||did||you||get||there?||— By bus.|
|How long||it||take||you to do your homework?||— Three hours.|
|How long ago||it||start||raining?||— About two hours ago.|
|When||you||finish||school?||— A year ago.|
|What||he||do||after school?||— He went to university.|
|Where||she||study||English?||— At college.|
|Why||we||leave||the party so early?||— I was too bored.|
|How much||it||cost?||— Not much.|
|How many friends||you||have||at school?||— A lot.|
|How often||Sam||have||English classes last term?||— Twice a week.|
|What kind of film||I||see?||— A thriller.|
|Whose lecture||they||listen||to?||— They listened to a world-famous professor.|
|Who||did||she||see||at the party?||— Brian and his girlfriend.|
|Who||he||meet||at the airport?||— His wife.|
|What||they||see||in London?||— A lot of interesting sights.|
|Who||—||—||helped you with the test?||— Brian did.|
|What||—||—||happened last night?||— Nothing special.|
|Who||was||—||at the conference?||— All my colleagues.|
|What||was||—||strange?||— His behaviour and appearance.|
Exercise 43. Ask questions about the information in italics.
Example: Bobby played golf yesterday. — What did Bobby do yesterday?
1. My parents were on holiday in Greece in June.
Exercise 44. Ask subject or object questions. Give short answers to subject questions.
Example: We waited for him at the door. — Who waited for him at the door? — We did.
— Who did you wait for at the door?
1. We listened to the news at breakfast.
The Future Simple Tense
The Future Simple Tense is used:
The journey will take six hours.
These expressions are usually used with the Future Simple Tense:
Tomorrow (morning / afternoon / evening)
The day after tomorrow
In (the near) future
One of these days
in a few minutes / in a moment / in a week / in five months time / in a week’s time, etc.
In the future, machines will do many of the jobs that people do now.
Wait a minute — I’ll open the door.
I promise I’ll give up smoking.
I’ll never speak to her again.
|I You He/She/It We You They||will (‘ll) stay here tonight.|
NOTE:a) will is used with all persons (I, you, he, they, etc.).
b) shall is used instead of will with I or we, but in everyday speech, will is more common.
c) in spoken English ‘ll is used with subject pronouns.
He’ll be there in time.
BUT: John will be there in time.
Exercise 45. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Simple Tense. Use contraction (‘ll) where possible.
Example: I think I (be) in Liverpool next week. — I think I’ll be in Liverpool next week.
Fiona (be) 20 in March. — Fiona will be 20 in March.
1. They (arrive) home before midnight tonight.
|I You He/She/It We You They||will not (won’t) work tomorrow.|
NOTE:a) will not (won’t) is used with all persons (I, you, he, they, etc.).
b) shallnot(shan’t) is used with I or we, but in everyday speech, will is more common.
Exercise 46. Write negative sentences with the verb in the correct form.
Example: He won’t forget to take his medicine.(forget)
1. I know she ___ with this idea. (agree)
Exercise 47. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb given in the box. Use each verb only once.
|see, get, stay, win, tell, come, be, leave|
Example: — Please, stay with me. — Don’t worry, I won’t leave you. I’ll stay with you.
— All right. See you then.
— Don’t worry, I ___ her.
— My grandparents are on their way to America. They’re going to live there, so I probably ___ them again.
— Why not? You can go there for a holiday.
— Yes. I think they ___ married soon.
— Do you think they ___?
|Shall||I we||help go||you? to the cinema?||— Yes, please. / No, thanks. — OK, let’s go. / I’m afraid, I don’t want to.|
|Will||he she it you they||stay||here?||— Yes, he/she/it/I/we/they will. — No, he/she/it/I/we/they won’t.|
NOTE: a) Shall is generally used as a first person question (with I or we) to make suggestions and offers.
b) Will is used as a first person question with I to ask about future. Will I be happy, will I be rich...?
Exercise 48. Make these sentences into general questions. Give short answers.
Example: (you be) at home tomorrow? — Will you be at home tomorrow? — Yes, I will. ? No, I won’t.
Exercise 49. Make up your own sentences with Shall I...? / Shall we...?
Example: the theatre this evening? — Shall we go to the theatre this evening?
do the washing up for you? — Shall I do the washing up for you?
1) close the window?
2) the disco on Friday?
3) another television programme?
4) a game of tennis?
5) turn on the radio?
6) help you with this exercise?
|What||shall||I||do?||— Whatever you like.|
|Where||will||I||be in ten years’ time?||— Nobody knows.|
|Where||shall||we||go tonight?||— Let’s go to the cinema.|
|When||will||you||tell her the truth?||— One of these days.|
|How old||will||he||be next birthday?||— He’ll be twenty-nine.|
|How often||will||they||see each other in ten years’ time?||— Perhaps they will never see each other again.|
|How long||will||it||take?||— About an hour.|
|How much||will||the trip||cost?||— It won’t be expensive.|
|Why||will||she||stay in town this summer?||— Because she’s going to work as a tourist guide.|
|Which trip||will||you||take?||— I think I’ll take a bicycle trip.|
|Who||will||—||win the race?||— It’s rather difficult to predict.|
Exercise 50. Complete the sentences.
Example: Who will arrange everything? — Nancy.
|I’ll||give you a lift,||shall I?||— Yes, please. That’s very kind of you./ No, thanks. I’ll walk.|
|I||will||be rich,||won’t I?||— Yes, you will. / No, you won’t.|
|You||will||leave tomorrow,||won’t you?||— Yes, I will. / No, I won’t.|
|He/She||will||enjoy the camping trip||won’t he/she?||— Yes, he/she will. / No, he/she won’t.|
|It||will||be Sunday tomorrow,||won’t it?||— Yes, it will. / No, it won’t.|
|We’ll||go by plane,||shall we?||— All right. Let’s go by plane.|
|They||will||be more careful next time,||won’t they?||— Yes, they will. / No, they won’t.|
|I||won’t||work next week,||will I?||— No, you won’t. / Yes, you will.|
|You||won’t||be late,||will you?||— No, I. won’t. / Yes, I will.|
|He/She||won’t||tell anyone else,||will he/she?||— No, he/she won’t. / Yes, he/she will.|
|It||won’t||help anyone,||will it?||— No, it won’t. / Yes, it will.|
|We||won’t||do this,||will we?||— No, we won’t. / Yes, we will.|
|They||won’t||come to see us,||will they?||— No, they won’t. / Yes, they will.|
NOTE:a) after Let’s... the question tag is shall we?
Let’s go out for a walk, shall we?
b) After the imperative (Do/Don’t do...) the tag is will you?
Open the door, will you?
Exercise 51. Give the correct tag to these sentences.
Exercise 52. Ask questions about the information in italics.
1. At the weekend we’ll probably go to the cinema.