The International Air Transport Association was founded in 1945 by the airlines of-many countries to meet the problems created by the rapid expansion of civil air services at the close of the Second World War. It is the successor in function of the previous International Air Traffic Association, organized in The Hague at the very dawn of regular air transport in 1919.
As a non-governmental organization, it draws its legal existence from a special Act of the Canadian Parliament, given Royal Assent in December 1945.
In both its organization and its activity, IATA has been closely associated with ICAO - the International Civil Aviation Organization which was also established in 1945 as the international agency of governments which creates world standards for the technical regulation of civil aviation.
IATA deals with the non-political aspects of air transport operation; its work begins only after governments have decided which companies they wish to license and how they wish to exchange traffic and other rights between them. But from that point on, the activity of IATA spreads through virtually every phase of air transport operations.
The basic source of authority in IATA is the Annual General Meeting, in which all active members have an equal vote. Year-round policy direction is provided by an elected Executive Committee and its creative work is largely carried out by its Financial, Legal, Technical, Traffic and Medical Committees. Negotiation on fares and rates agreements is carried out through the IATA Traffic Conferences, with separate Conferences considering Passenger and Cargo matters.
Members of IATA Committees are nominated by individual airlines, but serve as experts on behalf of the entire industry, subject to the regulation and review of the Executive Committee. In the Traffic Conference, however, delegates act as representatives of their individual companies. While the Executive Committee fixes the terms of reference of these Conferences, their decisions are subject only to The review of governments and cannot be altered by any other party of IATA.
IATA administration is carried out under a Director General and five Assistant Directors General -Traffic, Technical, General Counsel, Administration and Finance, Special Governmental and Industry Affairs, The Association has two main offices, one in Montreal and one in Geneva. Traffic Service Offices are also maintained in New York and Singapore. Regional. Technical Representatives are based in Bangkok, Geneva, London, Nairobi and Riode Janeiro.
IATA's budget is financed from the dues paid by its members, largely in proportion to the part of the total international air traffic which each carries. Some IATA activities are self-supporting through charges for services rendered.
18. COMPUTERIZED SYSTEMS IN AIRPORTS( Individual work)
An important factor in the success of the international airport is the large scale application of the latest scientific and technological innovations.
New systems and electronic computers have been introduced in all the services. For example, the automated system for navigational estimation, developed jointly by the computing centre, traffic control and flight navigation departments of the administration, ensures the issue of navigation parameters of flight and the choice of fuel-saving flight patterns for each plane taking off from the airport.
Computers also select parking places for aircraft taxiing into the terminal, calculate the most economical space for each plane and relay its co-ordinates to the ground control display. Thanks to the reduction in the taxiing time of heavy aircraft ensured by this system, the airport can save more than one thousand tons of aviation fuel a year.
The freight terminal in airport guarantees quick and efficient handling of cargo.
Computers collect and analyse more data about potential aircraft designs, business plans than human beings could ever manage in a practical sense. But aviation computer power doesn't stop there. Consider the actual flight. Advanced technology enables the pilot to send commands to the onboard computers simply by applying slight pressure to the pedal and throttle. The computers, in turn, combine these commands With sensor data on the aircrafts speed, altitude, angle of attack, and stress.
These complex computers calculate the engine power and surface move gap needed to implement the pilot's instructions. These adjustments occur millions of it per second, giving the pilot smoother control of the aircraft. Adjustments are also made for headwinds and other variables. These changers allow an aircraft to reach its destination on time, with greater comfort and fuel economy.
V. AIR TRAFFIC
Safety is the most important problem in aviation. The prevention of collisions between aircraft in the air and on the ground is the main task of aviation specialists. The achievement of aviation safety is the result of progress in many sciences and disciplines including engineering, aerodynamics, meteorology, psychology, medicine and economics.
Safety is ensured by thousands of ICAO and governmental regulations, by high standards in the design and manufacture of an aircraft and by rigid (strict) procedures of airline safety practices.
The aviation industry is constantly taking steps to prevent accidents but the crashes do occur time after time. They result from different causes: failure in the aircraft structure, human errors, navigational failures, malfunctioning of airborne and ground aids, hazardous weather conditions and so on.
Poor knowledge of English can also contribute to or result in an accident or incident. Therefore ICAO revised the provisions related to the use of the language for radiotelephony communications and demands good discipline to follow more closely to standard phraseology in all air-ground exchanges.
Experience has shown that phraseology alone is not sufficient to cover all of the potential situations, particularly in critical or emergency situations. That’s why proficiency in common or plain language is also of great importance.
One of ICAO’s chief activities is standardization in all spheres of aviation operations. The main ICAO document is SARPS (International Standards and Recommended Practices). Its main task is to provide the necessary level of standardization for safe and regular air operations.
I. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
terror – terrible – terribly – terrific
danger – dangerous – dangerously
care – careful – careless – carelessness
safe – safety – unsafe
prevent – preventive – prevention
collide – collision
special – specially – specialist – speciality – specialize – specialization
achieve – achievement
ensure – insurance
govern – governor – government – governmental
regular – regularly –regulation – regularity – irregular
differ – different – differently –difference
fail – failure
navigate – navigator – navigation – navigational
hazard – hazardous
know – knowledge – unknown
provide – provision – provider
relate – relation – relative – relatively – relativity
communicate – communication – communicative – community
sufficient – sufficiently – sufficiency – insufficient
proficient – proficiently – proficiency
necessary – necessarily – necessity – unnecessary
critical – critically – criticize – criticism – uncritical
close – closely
20. Air traffic Control( Individual work)
The ATC’s first concern is safety, that is the prevention of collision between aircraft in the air and orderly flow of traffic.
To perform their exacting duties air traffic controllers need adequate facilities. The introduction of radars greatly assists in expediting the flow of traffic reducing the separation minima. Computers are also a powerful tool. They give assistance by taking over routine tasks but they must not dominate the system. The human controller is much more efficient than any current system because it is he who takes responsibility for controlling aircraft and it is he who takes final decisions in all situations including conflicting and emergency. During periods of heavy traffic controllers work under high stress. They may control several aircraft simultaneously, their number sometimes exceeding 15 and even more. Controllers’ slightest error may cause loss of human lives and property.
Top physical and mental condition is a vital requirement for atc controllers. Therefore they undergo strict medical examination which are repeated at periodic intervals.
The problem of the selection and training of ATC personnel is extremely important. The controllers should possess a number of qualities which are absolutely necessary for them: a high degree of morality, a very good nervous and emotional balance, a sound critical judgment, a readiness for decisions and an instinct for team work. To become a highly professional controller one must be proficient not only in specialized aviation English but also in plain language because aviation safety depends on accurate pilot – controller communications.
The training of ATC personnel is carried out by different methods using various teaching aids, systems and simulators. Modern simulators can reproduce the whole ATC task from take-off to landing including all maneuvers even the dangerous ones.
To talk about the air traffic controller's role is, of course, important. Controller's functions are very numerous and rather difficult. It is known that great technological achievements have been reached. But speaking about full automation in the field of aircraft operations and air traffic control one must remember that electronic devices cannot replace man. They can only be an auxiliary to the human operator. Increasing air safety is the main task of controllers. Some people see the answer to ATC problems in large radars with enormous coverage (range). This will require navigation system with air-ground data links so that position information is the same in the air and on the ground. The task of the controller then will be separating aircraft from each other and maintaining a safe and orderly flow of traffic. The role of the controller in the future is becoming that of a monitor, he will interfere only when needed. So he will be a necessary element in the air traffic control process.
I. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
prevent – prevention – preventive
provide – provision – provider – provisional
order – orderly
perform – performance
exact – exactly – exactness
introduce – introduction – introductory
reduce – reduction
power – powerful – powerless
efficient – efficiently – efficiency
responsible – responsibility – response – respond
decide – decision – decisive
strict – strictly – strictness
necessary – unnecessary – necessity
depend – dependent – dependence – independent
train – trainer – trainee – training
carry – carrier – carriage
differ – different – indifferent – differently
simulate – simulator – simulation
21. Human factors in aviation( Individual work)
Human factor is a critical aspect of aviation safety, one that ICAO began to address more than a decade ago. ICAO convened the first in a series of global symposia on flight safety and human factors in 1990. From the beginning, when the first event was held in a city known then as Leningrad, there was a conviction that international aviation could make enormous progress in improving safety through the application of human factors knowledge.
The first symposium was a turning point and the stage for following meetings in the United States in 1993, in New Zealand in 1996 and, finally in Chile in 1999. There have been encouraging developments since 1990, but we still have challenges to pursue: after the Leningrad symposium, human error remains a significant safety concern.
The purpose of the worldwide symposia and 10 regional seminars which were held in the past decade was to increase the awareness of States, industry and organizations in all ICAO regions about the importance of human factors. The ongoing implementation of the ICAO communication, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management (CNS/ATM) systems concept has introduced new challenges, and also new possibilities for human factors. The reason the community must respond to is, of course, to ensure that civil aviation continues to achieve its ultimate goal: the safe and efficient transportation of passengers and goods.
The ICAO flight safety and human factors programme is safety–oriented and operationally relevant. Moreover, it is practical since it must deal with real problems in a real world. Through the programme, ICAO has provided the aviation community with the means and tools to anticipate human error and contain its negative consequences in the operational environment. Furthermore, ICAO’s efforts are aimed at the system – not the individual.
The global aviation safety plan (GASP) was developed by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission in 1997 and subsequently approved by the ICAO Council and endorsed by the ICAO Assembly. GASP was designed to coordinate and provide a common direction to the efforts of States and the aviation industry to the extent possible in safety matters. It is a tool that allows ICAO to focus resources and set priorities giving emphasis to those activities that will contribute the most to enhancing safety. Therefore the flight safety and human factors programme is among the six major activities that comprise the plan.
I. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
safe – safety – safely – unsafe
navigate – navigation – navigator – navigable – navigability
operate – operation – operative – operator – operational - operationally
industry – industrial – industrious - industrialist – industrialization
communicate – communication – communicative – communicable – communicator
progress – progressive – progression – progressionist
improve – improvement – improvable – improver
organize - organization – organizer - disorganization
efficient – efficiency – inefficient – efficiently – inefficiency
III. Знайдіть у тексті еквіваленти:
знание человеческого фактора; важное дело для безопасности; идея систем связи, навигации, обзора и управления воздушным пространством и воздушным движением; программа ИКАО по безопасности полетов и человеческому фактору; план по авиационной безопасности в мировом масштабе; комиссия ИКАО по воздушной навигации; вопросы безопасности.
1. Человеческий фактор является одним из важнейших аспектов авиационной безопасности.
2. В течение последнего десятилетия ИКАО провела несколько симпозиумов и семинаров, связанных с человеческим фактором в авиации.
3. Знание человеческого фактора может значительно повысить безопасность полетов.
4. Для повышения безопасности новые системы связи, навигации и обзора постоянно широко внедряются.
5. Совершенствование управления воздушным движением будет продолжаться.
6. Программа по безопасности полетов и человеческому фактору является инструментом, который позволяет предупреждать человеческие ошибки при выполнении полетов.
7. Вопросы безопасности в авиации и человеческий фактор являются самыми важными в плане авиационной безопасности в мировом масштабе.
22. Emergency( Individual work)
Emergency is a serious event that needs immediate action. The type of emergency that may occur is completely unpredictable. No official documents examine the classification of emergencies. Each of them is an event on its own. It may be similar to other emergencies, but it is rare to have two which are identical in every respect. The exception to this for working radar controllers is a mid-air explosion, and although the actual cause of the explosion might well differ, its effect on the controller will be the same.
It is impossible to define instructions for all cases and write such a document as phraseology for emergencies. Nevertheless there are some standard procedures which help to prevent chaos and make controller’s work organized and regulated. Some types of emergencies have specific instructions as to the actions which the pilot and ATC controller must make.
An aircraft under emergency gets priority over other aircraft. There exist instructions concerning using special radiotelephony signals. Pilots must inform ATC by sending established signals (May Day, PAN and Security) and the controller must impose silence.
There are certain actions which are common to a controller handling of all occurrences.
1. Don’t keep it to yourself.
2. Get help. And get it early enough to be of practical value.
3. Inform your supervisor. In most cases he will be able to do most of the liaison which will be needed.
4. Do not forget your other traffic. It may become necessary to transfer all traffic except the emergency flight to another frequency. The whole of the air traffic team on duty will be very busy to provide the best possible service to the flight in the difficulty. Emergencies are where all of the controllers training and expertise are vital.
5. Keep calm. Never let your voice portray nervousness or unease.
Sometimes the controller does not fully understand what the precise problem is. That’s why a controller (as well as a pilot) must know not only radiotelephony phraseology but also possess knowledge of the general English. Reading aviation magazines and accident reports can greatly help to understand problems which may occur.
23. emergency Definitions( Individual work)
ICAO has some definitions concerning emergency procedures.
Emergency phase. A generic term meaning, as the case may be, uncertainty phase, alert phase or distress phase.
Uncertainty phase. A situation wherein uncertainty exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants.
Alerting phase. A situation wherein apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft or its occupants.
Distress phase. A situation wherein there is reasonable certainty that an aircraft and its occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger or require immediate assistance.
Emergency is a serious event that needs immediate action.
Summarizing aeronautical experience a list of most common reasons for the crew to declare an emergency can be made: mid-air explosion, serious fire in the cabin or engine, oil or door warning lights, loss of an engine, bird strikes, illness on board. However, this list will never be comprehensive and complete. Thus, each emergency must be treated as an event of its own. It may be similar to other emergencies, but there hardly could be two identical in every respect. That is why it is totally impossible to define instructions for all cases and write such a document as phraseology for emergencies. Nevertheless, there are some standard procedures which help to prevent chaos and make controller's work organized and regulated.
An aircraft under emergency gets priority over other aircraft. An aircraft in distress informs ATC using radiotelephony signal MAYDAY, radiotelegraphy signal SOS. The aircraft in distress sets its transponder mode A code 7700.
An aircraft having some difficulties but which does not need immediate assistance can inform about it switching on and off its landing lights or flashing its navigation lights in a way different from the normal one.
An aircraft which has an urgent message concerning people safety, other aircraft or vehicle transmits radiotelegraphy signal XXX or radiotelephony signal PAN.
In some cases it can be difficult to determine into which of the categories a particular incident falls and in other cases it is quite clear. The English used in these events can be confusing and often does not give the information a controller needs to make a reasonable assessment of the situation. The pilot may not be proficient in the use of English outside the standard laid down phraseology. And there are no laid down phraseologies for emergencies. If in doubt as to exact nature of the problem, then ask for clarification. Never forget that one unusual situation can lead to another, and they can overlap.
Inform your supervisor. He will be able to do most of the liaison which will be needed. Do not forget your other traffic. The necessity of transferring all the rest traffic to another frequency may arise. Radio silence may be imposed on all traffic except the flight in emergency.
24. ICAO’s Global Aviation security Strategy( Individual work)
Since the events of 11 September 2001, the world aviation community has initiated a wide range of measures to increase security. New international security standards and a programme of aviation security audits were adopted by all 188 Contracting States of ICAO.
ICAO Contracting States reinforced security measures and procedures, particularly at airports.
The 33rd Session of its Assembly, which was opened after the September 2001 terrorist attack, initiated immediate action aimed at preventing, combating and eradicating future acts of terror against civil aviation. Annex 17 to the Convention on civil aviation was strengthened and many new standards adopted. In November 2001, The Council convened to consider specific proposals for inclusion in Amendment 10 to Annex 17. These proposals were unanimously agreed and the following issues were adopted in December 2001:
— Applicability of Annex 17 to domestic operations.
— Certification of screeners.
— Access control relating to air crew and airport personnel.
— In-flight security personnel and protection of the cockpit.
— Joint response to acts of unlawful interference.
— Definition of aircraft security check and security restricted area.
The Ministerial Conference, held in February 2002 reviewed and endorsed the ICAO Plan of Action for Strengthening Aviation Security, which was approved by the ICAO Council in June 2002. A major component of the Plan, aviation security audits in all ICAO Contracting States, commenced in October 2002.
The long term component of ICAO’s global aviation security strategy is focused on three critical areas. One is to assess new and emerging threats to aviation security so as to develop an ability to initiate pre-emptive action.
The second is to continually monitor and upgrade existing security process.
And the third is to expedite the clearance of passengers whilst maintaining the highest level of security.
A central element of the ICAO strategy is the Aviation Security Plan of Action which include regular, mandatory and systematic audits to enable evaluation of aviation security in all 187 Member States.
25. Aviation Security equipment( Individual work)
Airport screening was established in the Usa in January 1973. The equipment was primitive in comparison with today’s screening tools. Since then the equipment was improved and new technology was developed.
Introduced in 1972 the walk-through metal detector has become a standard screening tool at airports. This equipment has provided high quality detection but it has some disadvantages. The alarm system remains unchanged. Security agent must constantly watch and listen for an alarm to ensure detection. At busy airports there are multiple units resulting in multiple alarms and it is easy for a screener to become confused as to which unit has sounded an alarm. It is not only confusing for the operator but also noisy and confusing for passengers.
Some time later another equipment was offered by manufactures, that is a gate system. If no metal is detected the gate remains open. But if metal is detected the gate operates to divert the passenger to a secondary screening point.
The primary tool for searching hand luggage is the X-ray machine. The system operator must be well-trained to identify not only guns and knives, but improvised explosive devices. Many dangerous items cannot be identified with X-ray technology. This is because basic X-ray images only show shadows. Many dangerous items cannot be identified solely with X-ray equipment. If an operator clearly sees and identifies dangerous item the only way is to open the bags and to conduct a hand search.
Another security equipment, called Explosives Trace Detector (ETD) was installed at some airports. ETD is easier to use than any other screening equipment because all that is required of the operator is to take a sample. The equipment automatically analyzes this sample and notifies the operator when explosive item is detected.
One more equipment for screening checked baggage was installed at many airports. It is the Explosives Detection System (EDS). EDS technology is extremely effective in the detection of the presence of explosives.
The latest security systems such as Machine Readable Travel Documents and biometric identification are being introduced at many airports to prevent civil aviation from becoming a terrorist target and to provide absolute security for air passengers.
26. Language and aviation safety( Individual work)
In December 1995 a Boeing 757 flew into a mountainside near Cali, Columbia, killing 160 people. The inquiry revealed that the pilots were confused about their location, a situation that resulted from their misinterpretation of the air traffic controller’s clearance to Cali. Less than one year after this accident, in November 1996, a Boeing 747 collided with an Ilyushin Il-76 near Delhi, India, killing everyone on board aircraft. The inquiry into this accident revealed that there had been some confusion among the IL-76 flight crew, most of whom were not proficient in English, concerning the level to which the aircraft had been cleared to descend.
These two accidents illustrate how the lack of proficiency in a common language and poor comprehension of appropriate phraseology by flight crews and air traffic controllers, can contribute to or result in an accident.
ICAO has been involved in language training for a good number of years. During the 1980s, ICAO prepared standardized training guideline entitled Aviation English for Air Traffic Controllers. A recent development in this area is ICAO’s decision to review radiotelephony phraseology. This process will involve a comprehensive review of the existing provisions for air-ground and ground-ground voice communications in international civil aviation with the ultimate goal of developing enhanced communication procedures. New provisions would address both routine and non-routine communications, standardized English language testing requirement and procedures, and minimum skill-level requirements in the use of common English.
Safety may also be at risk when the language of the documentation on board cannot beunderstood by the local inspection authorities. A proposal by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission to amend several annexes by introducing a requirement to translate on board documents into English was adopted by the ICAO Council early 2001.
The same requirements are just essential for air-ground radio communications. The proper use of aeronautical phraseology is an important element in reducing the risk of misunderstandings, there by enhancing flight safety. regardless of the language used. The lack of knowledge of the English language can be a burden to pilots and air traffic controllers, and continues to be a problems in international operations.
There is a need, therefore, to establish requirements enhancing the minimum performance standards for radiotelephony phraseology and use of the English language by air traffic controllers and pilots engaged in international operations.
accident – авиационное происшествие (катастрофа)
incident – предпосылка к авиационному происшествию
27. AVIATION AND ENVIRONMENT( Individual work)
Aircraft engines emit noise pollution, gases and particulate emissions, and contribute to global warming and global dimming.
Modern turbofan and turboprop engines are considerably more fuel-efficient and less polluting than earlier models. However, despite this, the rapid growth of air travel in recent years contributes to an increase in total pollution attributable to aviation, offsetting some of the reductions achieved by automobiles. In the EU greenhouse gas emissions from aviation increased by 87% between 1990 and 2006.
CO2 emissions from the jet fuel burned per passenger on an average 3200 kilometers (1992 miles) airline flight is about 353 kilograms (776 pounds). Loss of natural habitat potential associated with the jet fuel burned per passenger on a 3200 kilometers (1992 miles) airline flight is estimated to be 250 square meters (2700 square feet).[verification needed]
In the context of purported climate change and peak oil, there is a debate about possible taxation of air travel and the inclusion of aviation in an emissions trading scheme, with a view to ensuring that the total external costs of aviation are taken into account.
The airline industry is responsible for about 11 percent of greenhouse gases emitted by the U.S. transportation sector. Boeing estimates that biofuels could reduce flight-related greenhouse-gas emissions by 60 to 80 percent. The solution would be blending algae fuels with existing jet fuel:
Boeing and Air New Zealand are collaborating with leading Brazilian biofuels maker Tecbio and Aquaflow Bionomic of New Zealand and other jet biofuel developers around the world.
Virgin Atlantic and Virgin Green Fund are looking into the technology as part of a biofuels initiative.
KLM has made the first commercial flight with bio-fuel in 2009.