I. Если глагол в главном предложении имеет форму настоящего или будущего времени, то в придаточном предложении может употребляться любое время, которое требуется по смыслу.


I am disappointed that you have failed in Maths.

In some days I will know for sure where we will spend our summer vacations.

They have informed us that the police coped extremely well.

II. Если глагол в главном предложении стоит в одном из прошедших времен, то и глагол в придаточном предложения также должен стоять в одном из прошед­ших времен (включая Future-in- the-Past).

Примечание: Если в предложении несколько придаточных, правила согласования времен применяются к каждому из них.


He exсlamed he was unhappy you were in quarrel with him.

She admitted that she was awarewhat kind of problem would arise.

Table 1 :

Present Simple ► I know that she usually cleans the flat herself. Past Simple I knew that she usually cleaned the flat herself.
Present Continuous ► I know that she is cleaning the flat now. Past Continuous I know that she was cleaning the flat then.
Present Perfect ► I know that she has cleaned the flat. Past Perfect I knew that she had cleaned the flat.
Past Simple ► I know that she cleaned the flat last week. Past Perfect I knew that she had cleaned the flat the previous week.
Future Simple ► I know that she will clean the flat next week. Future Simple-in-the-Past I know that she would clean the flat the next week.
Table 2 :
today, tonight here ►that day, that night ►there
now this, these tonight yesterday the day before yesterday ►then ►that, those ► that night ►the day before/the previous day ►2 days before yesterday
2 years ago last night, week, month, etc. ►2years before ►the night, week, etc., before/the previous night, week
tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week/year, etc. ►the following day /the next day ►in two days' time ►the following week /the next week/year, etc.

1.Если действие в придаточном предложении происходит одновременно с действием в главном предложении (simultaneous actions), в придаточном предложении употребляются Past Simple либо Past Continuous.


I knew that he playedtennis every day. Я знал, что он ежедневно играет в теннис.

I knew that he was playing tennis and I didn't want to disturb him. Я знал, что он играет в теннис, и мне не хотелось его беспокоить.

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

Student A: Student B:

1. She could not imagine what he was doing there alone.

2. I forgot what he looked like.

3. I did not know whether the doctor was experienced enough.

4. What surprised me was that Pat was so much at home there.

5. He asked me what work I was doing.

6. I was surprised you knew my name.

7. He told his father that he made ten dollars a week.

8. She informed everyone who phoned her that she was unwell and did not leave home.

9. He admitted that he felt lonely in London.

10. She warned me that it was dangerous to walk in the park alone.

Exercise 2. Change the verb in the principal clause into a past tense and make the necessary changes in the subordinate clause.

Student A: Student B:

1. Everybody knows that Susan is strict about keeping things tidy.

2. I forget that she is always letting people down.

3. What he is saying is not true.

4. Mary complains that she is bored with the same old routine day after day.

5. He knows that his grandparents always go to church on Sundays.

6. He wants us to see that he is not hostile.

7. We know that the bridge is unsafe.

8. She can't understand why they are trying to talk her into taking a dance course.

9. My sister agrees that she needs a shoulder to cry on.

10. I can tell from her face that she is lying.

11. We know that the company is reorganizing its departments.

Exercise 3. Open the brackets using the correct tense form.

1. My daughter wanted to see the new film. She found out that many good actors (star) in it.

2. She complained that Jack always (get) on her nerves.

3. We were not sure that Paul would find Mary. We were afraid he (not/know) her address.

4. I didn't introduce Jack to Helen. I was sure they (know) each other, but it appeared they didn't.

5. It was a pity he no longer (care) in the least about Pat.

6. He proved to everyone's satisfaction that the drug (be) effective and harmless.

7. I knew she usually (get) in such a fuss before people (come) to dinner.

8. The Johnsons were away. We learnt that they (travel) about Canada.

9. She stayed in the whole evening. We were sure she (expect) guests.

10.I met Judy in the department store the other day. She explained that she (look) for a nice T-shirt for herself.

11.She mentioned to her colleagues that she (think) of retiring.

Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences using the words prompted.

e.g. I didn't want to phone Mary at that late hour. I knew she (go to bed early).

Student A:

e.g. The Petrovs were away. We learned that they (travel in the Caucasus).

Student B:

I gave that stamp to Peter. He said he (collect stamps).

1. I saw Andrew at the bus-stop some minutes ago. He said he (wait for Jane).

2. When I phoned Victor the other day he was out. His sister told me he (play tennis in the park).

3. We made up our minds to spend the holidays in the mountains. We thought it (be a great idea).

4. I met Judy in the department store. She said she (look for a winter coat).

5. We sent a ticket to Mr. Smith. We knew he (be keen on ballet).

6. My brother wanted to see that film. He said that many good actors (star in it).

7. We were not sure Paul would find Mary. We were afraid he (not, know her address).

8. When I came home yesterday my brother was busy. I saw that he (pack his things).

9. I didn't introduce Jack to Helen. I was sure they (know each other) but it appeared they didn't.

2. Если действие в придаточном предложении предшествуетдействию в главном предложении (prior action), в придаточном предложении употребляется Past PerfectилиPast Perfect Continuous.


I knew (that) Bill had not had time to read my letter. Я знал, что Билл ещё не успел прочесть моё письмо.

We knew (that) they had been saving money since October. Мы знали, что они экономили деньги с прошлого года.

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

Student A: Student B:

1. I looked at my watch and saw that we had been discussing the production plan for 3 hours.

2. It was not known where he had spent his early childhood.

3. When I saw Alec he boasted that he'd spent a month in the south.

4. When I met Mary I understood that she had been crying.

5. When I called on my friend the other day he said that he had been working at his report for a month.

6. She seemed to have forgotten what had happened a few minutes before.

7. The question was why he had sold the house.

Exercise 2. Make the actions in the following object clauses prior to those of the principal clauses.

1. What she could not understand was why he (to tell) them such a pack of lies.

2. Her mother had once confided to her that she (to want) to be an actress.

3. It was probably true that he (to be) quite fond of his late brother.

4. 14.1 wondered what she (to do) there so late at night.

5. When I came to the station I saw my cousin. I understood that she (miss) the 8 o'clock train.

6. Everybody praised the film. Mary was sorry she (not/see) it.

7. It was raining hard. Mrs. Parker regretted she (not/take) an umbrella.

8. My friend called on me yesterday. He boasted he (get) two tickets for the match.

9. Harry didn't come to the party. We thought he (not/receive) our invitation.

10. We wanted to know where she (be) all that time.

11. I found out that a professional singer (be engaged) for the concert some days before.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions expressing priority in the subordinate clauses.

e.g. Loretta passed all her exams in June, didn't she? (be glad; well).

Student A: Student B:

1. Jane found her cell-phone, didn't she? (explain; at her friend's)

2. Alice met John at a disco, didn't she? (boast; two days ago)

3. Linda danced a lot at the party, didn't she? (be happy; with Tom)

4. Did Ann go to the theatre on Sunday? (find out; with her boy-friend)

5. Did the boss force him into resigning? (complain; practically)

6. What did he do with his digital watch? (explain; sell; the day before yesterday)

7. Why did Grace join a drama club? (say; want to learn acting)

8. Why did she make so many mistakes in the test? (learn; not/work hard)

9. Why didn't she look very happy after her trip to Rome? (complain; not/see all the sights)

10. Why is she hoovering the room again? (explain; the dog; leave hairs all over)

Exercise 4.Complete the following sentences using the words prompted.

e.g.I didn't think Mike would come with us. I knew he (see that performance before).

Student A:

e.g. Ann was angry with Andrew. She said she (wait for half an hour).

Student B:

1. When I came to the station I saw my cousin. I understood that he (miss the 8 o'clock train).

2. Alice was busy yesterday. She said she (type all day long).

3. Everybody praised the film. Mary was sorry she (not, see it).

4. It was raining hard. Mrs. Parker regretted that she (not, take an umbrella).

5. Jack was happy that he had got a ticket. He said he (stand in a queue for two hours).

6. I was sorry that Peter had failed his exam. I knew that he (prepa­re for it for a long time).

7. My brother called on me yesterday. He said he (buy tickets for the match).

8. Mother looked very tired when I returned home this afternoon. She said she (clean the flat).

9. I was surprised that Betsy didn't know the news. I was sure her husband (tell her everything).

10. Harry didn't come to the party. We thought he (not, receive our invitation).

3. Если действие в придаточном предложении относится к будущему времени, а действие главного предложения - к прошедшему, в придаточном предложении употребляется т.н. Future - in-the- Past (posterioraction).


I knew (that) Bill would come to see me after 10 P.M. Я знал, что Билл придёт ко мне после 10 часов вечера.

I was sure (that) the children would still be watching TV when I came. Я был уверен, что дети все еще будут смотреть телевизор, когда я приду.

Exercise 1. Transform the following sentences referring them to the past:

Student A: Student B:

1. Mother hopes that her junior son will be back tomorrow.

2. We are sure that it will be better to call at the Department store on our way home.

3. No one in the company can predict in what way the problem will be settled.

4. The editor insists that the article will be published immediately.

5. I have always believed that one day I will see him again.

6. There is an announcement in the local newspaper that the prices on consumer goods will rise next year.

7. The weather forecast says that it will pour with rain in two days’ time.

8. He predicts that he will discover the tiny particle during his next experiment.

9. He insists that the reforms will save the system, not destroy it.

Exercise 2. Open the brackets using the right adverbials.

1. A couple of weeks ago my son asked me to take him to the circus. I promised that we would go there (next week, the next week).

2. I ran into Mike last Sunday in a fast-food restaurant. He suggested that we should go to Paris (tomorrow, the next day) .

3. The students understand they won’t be allowed to leave until (the next day, tomorrow).

4. John promised me some days before that he would call on my parents (next, the following) Sunday and tell them I was O.K.

5. They've announced that the exam on Linguistics will be put off till the end of (next, the next) term.

6. There was very strong hope that the wounded man would survive by (next, the next) morning.

7. This summer was very wet. (Next, the next) summer will even be wetter.

8. I intended to visit Helen in hospital last Friday, but her husband phoned me on Thursday and said that the doctors would discharge her from hospital (the day after tomorrow, in two days' time).

9. Last year he promised his wife that they would definitely spend (next, the next) summer at the seaside.

10. We arrived in Turin on Monday and decided that (next, the following) day we would leave for Rome.

11. I hope that we will leave for the South (next week, the next week).

Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences using the words prompted.

e.g. I was out when my friend dropped in. I didn't think he (come so early).

I was out when my friend dropped in. I didn't think he would come so early.

1. On Friday I saw Lucy. I learned she (go abroad soon).

2. Nick didn't want to stay at his relatives'. He decided that he (put up at a hotel)

3. I felt worried. I was afraid Jane (be late).

4. There were a lot of good actors in the cast. I thought that the film (be interesting)

5. John came by train. I was sure he (fly).

6. The task was too dif­ficult for me. My friend promised he (help me).

7. Paul had already seen the play. He was sure we (enjoy it).

must ► must (or had to)
have to ► had to
can ► could/would be able to (future reference)
may ► might
will ► would

Exercise 1. Transform the following sentences referring them to the past.

Student A: Student B:

1. She complains she mustpay all the money back at a time.

2. He thinks that as far as we have bought all the books we needn't go to the library.

3. The notice says that people mustn’t smoke inside the theatre..

4. My friend thinks I shouldget my car repaired.

5. We can’t believe that it may be so important, but it is.

6. It is clear that Helen needn't worry as Ken will not be late.

7. The coach says that I must train very hard to develop muscles like that.

8. We know the machine can perform two million calculations per second.

9. She is sure that good cooking can disguise the quality of the ingredients .

10. They explain that I should see the doctor first.

11. It is evident they can’t control the situation.

В придаточных предложениях определительных, сравнительных, причины и других.


My boss informed me about the work he is planning.

He was not able to pass his exams because he does not work hard.

It was not so stuffy yesterday as it is now.

Когда в придаточном предложении дополнительном речь идет об общеизвестных истинах, фактах, явлениях:


The teacher said that the ice melts when the temperature rises above 0ºC.

He explained to us very clearly how computers work.

В контексте настоящего времени (т.е. в беседе), когда в дополнительном придаточном сообщается фактическое, а не относительное время событий:


– I've just phoned Steve.

– What did he say?

– He said there it was freezing hard in Paris yesterday.

Если информация, содержащаяся в придаточном предложении все еще соответствует действительности:


Agatha wroteto me saying that her father ownsa factory.

Когда действия в придаточном предложении относятся к определенному моменту в прошлом,употребляетсяthe Past Simple:


I knew that his son graduatedfrom the Universityin 1988.

Exercise 1. Open the brackets, using proper tense forms. Explain why the rules of the Sequence of Tenses may not be observed in the following sentences:

1. Stella remarked that she (return) from the office a minute ago.

2. Paul was sure he (meet) Sarah in Moscow in July 2006, but he didn’t remember the exact date.

3. Nobody could imagine that the Earth (rotate) round the Sun before Galileo.

4. My brother was much thinner in his childhood than he (be) now.

5. What did Barbara complain just now about? — She complained that her tooth still (ache) .

6. The advertisement read that the swimming-pool (be) free, but when we got there, we found we had to pay.

7. He rejected the job of an interpreter as he (not to speak) foreign languages well enough.

8. We discussed our holiday plans because we (have) a two-week leave in a month.

9. I couldn’t even think that the woman who (live) nextdoor was so friendly.

10. I was going to get a cup of coffee, but Reter just explained that the machine (be) out of order. It's going to be fixed tomorrow.

11. They announced on the radio that the Queen (come) here next month. Isn't that exciting?

12. When the Chairman spoke to reporters yesterday, he admitted that the company (be) now in a much better financial position.

13. I didn’t know that the man who normally (work) here was ill.


TASK I.Pick out the correct variant.

1. Steve promised (that)

a) he comes soon;

b) he had not come;

c) he would come soon.

3. Andrew explained (that)

a) he is having a vacation soon;

b) he had had a vacation two weeks before;

c) he will have a vacation the following week.

4. Kevin didn't know (that);

a) he must report on the problem tomorrow;

b) he would have to report on the problem the following day

c) he has report on the problem long ago.

5. Tom explained (that)

a) he can't attend the lecture last Monday;

b) he couldn't attend the lecture the previous Monday;

c) he won’t attend the lecture on Monday.

6. The farmer hoped (that)

a) the weather will be better better next summer;

b) the weather would be better the following summer;

c) the weather had been better next summer.

7. All the students knew (that)

a) a molecule of water would have two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen;

b) a molecule of water has two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen;

c) a molecule of water had had two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen.

TASK II. Use the proper tense forms:

Once an Englishman went to the seaside for his holidays. He asked his housekeeper to post him all the letters that she (receive) during his absence. She promised him to do that. The Englishman rested very well. A month passed but he (not to receive) any letters. He thought that it (be) strange and he (ring) up his housekeeper and asked her why she (not to post) his letters. The housekeeper explained that he (forget) to leave her the key to the letter-box. The Englishman promised that he (send) her the key. Some days later he put the key into an envelope, wrote down his address on it and posted the letter. Another month was passing. But still he didn't receive any letters. Then at the end of the month he returned home. He spoke angrily with his housekeeper. But the poor man was not to blame because the key which his master (post) was in the locked letter-box too.

TASK III. Translate into English:

1. Я заметил, что она смотрит на меня.

2. Учительница сказала, что мы должны повторить все правила.

3. Я знаю, что вам нечего бояться.

4. Я надеялся, что кто-то нашел мои ключи и передаст их мне.

5. Он обещал, что все будет сделано.

6. Я знал, что он пожалеет об этом.

7. Я дам вам ответ, когда я поговорю с отцом.

8. Он обещал, что скажет вам, что я уже вернулся и хочу видеть вас.

9. Она боялась, что вы скажете, что не можете помочь ей.

10. Я надеялся, что я успею на последний поезд, но я опоздал.

11. Вчера по дороге домой я зашел к Николаю. Он сказал, что только что получил телеграмму от матери и через час пойдет на вокзал встречать ее.

12. Когда я зашла к моей подруге, ее мать сказала, что ее нет дома: она сдает экзамен, но скоро вернется.

TASK IV. Read and reproduce the following texts: